How we read to children is as important as how frequently we read to them.
Children learn most from books when they are actively involved. To get children involved, researchers have developed a method of reading called Dialogic Reading. When most adults share a book with a child, they read and the child listens. In dialogic reading, the adult helps the child become the teller of the story. The adult becomes the listener, the questioner, the audience for the child. Dialogic reading is just children and adults having a conversation about a book.
Dialogic reading is based upon three main techniques - asking "what" questions, asking open-ended questions, and expanding upon what the child says. These three techniques are designed to encourage children to talk more and give descriptions of what they see. Dialogic reading can be used for children of all ages but is most effective when a child has at least 50 words of expressive vocabulary.
When sharing books with a baby, a father asks a question, pauses and then answers the question. This helps baby learn new vocabulary, plus he learns that conversation involves "taking turns." A mother asks, "Where's the baby's nose?" Then, pointing to the picture, "There's the baby's nose!"
Toddlers are especially primed for language learning. During the last half of the second year, from 19-24 months, toddlers who have learned about 50 words experience an explosive period of vocabulary growth. These "vocabulary-spurt" toddlers learn about nine new words a day or 63 per week! Dialogic reading makes the most of this stage in toddlers' development when language learning is at a peak.
Dialogic reading works! Children who have been read to dialogically are substantially ahead of children who have been read to traditionally on tests of language development. Children can jump ahead by several months in just a few weeks of dialogic reading.
Three steps of dialogic reading
- Ask "what" questions. Point to an item in a book and say, "what's this?" or "what's this called?" Repeat what your child says. Let your child know his or her answer is correct by repeating it back, "Yes, that's a snake."
- Expand what your child says. Keep the expansions short and simple. Make sure to build on your child's phrases just a little so that your child is able to imitate what you've said. Add, "Yes, you're right! That's a truck, a yellow dump truck." The conversation can continue, "What is that truck doing?" "Yes, it looks like he is dumping dirt into the hole."v
- Ask open-ended questions. After your child is comfortable answering "what" questions, begin asking "open-ended" questions. Open-ended questions require more thought to answer and encourage children to use their imaginations. Open-ended questions do not have right or wrong answers and send the message, "I want to know what you think."
Other questions could be, "What else do you see?" "Tell me about." and "What if." and "I wonder how." or "How did that happen?" or "What do you think?" If a child doesn't know what to say about a picture, you may need to help by answering the question yourself, "I think he may be.." Parents should be sure to praise and encourage, and always follow his interests.
It takes time to learn how to ask open-ended questions, but with practice and by following a child's lead, it becomes much easier. Open-ended questions allow children to say whatever they're thinking which often leads to interesting conversations.
The key of course is to have fun! One way to do this is to switch between asking questions and just plain reading. For example, read one page and then ask questions on the next page.
Of course, this is just one way to share a book. Children also benefit when parents read a book all the way through without stopping, which helps them understand the continuity of the story and enjoy the pleasing rhythms of language used well.
출처; ©2010 Multnomah County Library